The automotive industry is one of the biggest manufacturing industries in the world. In order to meet consumer demand as well as stay ahead of the competition, automakers and other stakeholders in the wider automotive industry are utilizing IoT technologies to facilitate everything from improved efficiency and advanced vehicle management capabilities to offering a superior driving experience. And that’s just for the cars themselves. When it comes to the wider ecosystem, IoT is enabling things like smart manufacturing and add-on services.

IoT has already revolutionized any number of industries, and the automotive sector is no different. IoT is propelling the automotive industry into unprecedented innovation and transformation, with the benefits far-reaching. From enhancing vehicle connectivity and improved safety and security to value added systems and the impact on the larger automotive ecosystem, IoT solutions are unlocking the full potential of connected vehicles, smart manufacturing, and fleet management. To use a well-worn pun, the road ahead is full of exciting developments that promise to shape the future of transportation.

With IoT technology, the way we design, manufacture, operate, and interact with our vehicles has already transformed in significant ways.

What is automotive IoT?

Automotive IoT is the integration of devices and sensors into vehicles, creating a system for connected cars, which in turn enables things like predictive maintenance, fleet management, OEMs, and insurance.

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Connected cars simplify life for both drivers and manufacturers, particularly when it comes to software upgrades.

Vehicles are increasingly complex and previously, the only way to update cars was to return them to the dealer, something that was inconvenient for the consumer and costly for the manufacturer. IoT connectivity allows manufacturers to update a car’s many software-reliant components over-the-air, including many of the vehicles electronic control units.

Additionally, evolving technology allows manufacturers to address new liabilities, deploying fixes remotely rather than dealing with issues on a case-by-case basis. When a new vulnerability is identified, IoT connect onboard software allows manufacturers to immediately address that vulnerability quickly and remotely.

And as embedded automotive IoT solutions continue to evolve, more complex innovations will make their debut. The continual advancements in both the speed of mobile communications and the technology inside vehicles will allow automotive manufacturers to offer even more new services as we go forward.

Benefits of automotive IoT

The IoT brings benefits to both the automotive manufacturer and the consumer include:

  • Optimized manufacturing

IoT technology enables a high level of automation and predictive maintenance during the manufacturing process, eliminating or significantly reducing the likelihood of human error. After sale, manufacturers can draw on IoT-generated data to know when servicing is required and alert the customer about this. Manufacturers can also gain a competitive advantage by leveraging IoT data to tailor future vehicle design based on customer needs.

  • Enhanced safety

Connected vehicles can contribute to greater road, driver, and pedestrian safety by utilizing real-time analysis of data from multiple sensors. With IoT, drivers are always aware of the condition of their car and thus can avoid roadside breakdowns or malfunction-related accidents. Additionally, the car’s system can alert drivers to pedestrians, cyclists, or other potential hazards and even initiate emergency braking.

  • Personalization

Connected cars can offer a more customized experience to consumers through personalized in-vehicle infotainment systems, connecting with smart home systems, and even car settings such as music choice, seat position, and optimal temperature.

  • Cost savings

IoT-connected cars save money for both consumers and manufacturers. Predictive maintenance isn’t just for the factory – IoT data can alert drivers to when their vehicle needs service, as well as any unexpected faults or problems. Additionally, connected vehicles increasingly reduce insurance premiums, which we’ll discuss next.

  • Reduced insurance premiums

The evolution of telematics makes it possible for insurance companies to offer more personalized policies. By using real-time driving data, insurance companies can now price their policies more accurately, moving away from a pricing model that largely relied on general demographic information.

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By sharing driving data on things like acceleration, braking, turns, and peak activity time consumers can get discounts and rewards based on safe driving habits.

Sharing that data also allows consumers to better understand which factors contribute to their insurance costs.

  • Reduced emissions

Optimizing the car manufacturing process with IoT is one way the automotive industry can help reduce emissions and air pollution. When it comes to the vehicles themselves, connected cars can leverage data to optimize fuel consumption and energy usage levels, as well as reduce traffic congestion by allowing drivers to maintain optimal speed without unnecessary acceleration or stops.

  • Road and traffic management

Leveraging data from IoT-enabled cars to detect congestion, road conditions, or even air quality allows cities to adjust and/or improve thinks like traffic light timings, road surfaces, and pathways, which ultimately leads to better urban infrastructure.

If you would like to learn more about how IoT can enable your automotive solution, please get in touch

Connected car solutions use IoT technology to expand the purpose of cars themselves by improving access to services and improving car performance and maintenance. But in order to do this, you need reliable, seamless, future proof global IoT connectivity with a SIM card that meets the demands of the automotive industry.

The connected cars of today – and tomorrow – require high-quality future-proof connectivity to provide everything from telematics and preventive maintenance to accident prevention (eCall) and enhanced infotainment systems.

What is an automotive SIM card?

An automotive SIM is an MFF2 SIM card that is designed specifically for the automotive industry. It comes in one form factor, and is soldered into place, which gives it an extra layer of security, as it is difficult to remove by a lay person, removing the possibility of unauthorized usage. The automotive SIM has even greater environtmental properties than the Premium Industrial eUICC SIM. You still enjoy Remote SIM Provisioning (virtual profiles), which allows car manufacturers to download profiles, switch operators, or even accommodate multiple operators on a single SIM.

How does an automotive SIM card differ from a Premium Industrial eUICC SIM card?

Both Tele2 IoT’s automobile SIM and premium industrial SIM are eUICC SIM cards. An automotive SIM has a longer data retention time compliant to ETSI Technical Specification 102.671, as well as higher minimum updates. The biggest difference between the two SIMs is the AEC-Q100 stress test. AEC-Q100 is a failure mechanism-based stress test qualification for packaged integrated circuits used in automotive applications, as established by the Automotive Electronics Council (AEC). An AEC-Q100-qualified device means that the device has passed the specific stress tests and guarantees a level of quality and reliability.

Why is it important the auto SIM can withstand high temperatures?

Cars in general undergo a lot of wear and tear over time, and when it comes to electrical parts, vehicles endure significant stress and must operate under constantly changing conditions. Automotive eUICC SIMs comply with industry-specific standards and can withstand extreme temperatures between -40°C and +105°C, as well as shock, moisture, reflow, humidity, vibration, and corrosion.

Why is a long lifetime important for the automotive SIM?

The auto SIM is soldered inside the telematics control unit, it’s not a SIM card that you can just pop in and out, so it needs to be in place for a long time. Because of this, auto SIMs have more write and erase cycles than a premium industrial SIM, so the memory is better and has longer retention – 17+ years – than a premium industrial SIM, which has around 15 years on average.

Common use cases for connected cars in the automotive industry include:

eCall: A mandatory system used in vehicles across the EU which automatically makes a 112 emergency call if your vehicle is involved in a serious road accident.

In-vehicle infotainment: a system that delivers a combination of information and entertainment content/services through audio and/or video interfaces, as well as control elements such as touch screens and voice commands.

In-vehicle navigation: Connected navigation services that provide turn-by-turn guidance to destinations.

Vehicle diagnostics: Leverages data to monitor a vehicle’s operation and health on performance and condition to identify maintenance issues and needs.

Usage-based insurance: Calculates premiums – and offers personalized insurance rates – based on vehicle usage and driver behavior by gathering data through IoT devices.

If you have any questions or comments about Automotive SIMs or anything IoT-related, please get in touch

5G has launched, while at the same time some of the 2G and 3G networks are being phased out. But while the need for high bandwidth, speed, and reliability is growing, the majority of IoT connections, such as solutions for alarm systems, asset tracking, and smart meters, don’t have requirements for maximum speed and throughput. Instead, they need simplicity and network efficiency. This is where LTE-M comes into play. 

What is LTE-M? 

LTE-M is a low power wide area cellular technology specifically designed for IoT. It prioritizes low power, minimal infrastructure, powerful reach over long distances, and scalability for large or growing deployments, allowing the connection of simple devices that transmit low volumes of data over long periods of time with low power consumption.  LTE-M also supports relatively fast data throughput, mobility, roaming, and voice services.  

Top benefits of LTE-M include: 

  • Long battery life 
  • Better coverage for remote/hard to reach devices
  • Lower power consumption

Why LTE-M? 

From a technical standpoint LTE-M has a number of advantages, and is particularly useful for devices without access to a power supply and thus require a long battery life. With long standby times and at least ten years of battery-powered operation, it is well-suited to remote solutions without easy access to power,  such as underground meters. 

LTE-M also offers significantly better indoor coverage in locations where it is difficult to connect devices using standard GSM technology, which means devices can still upload data in real time. It uses 4G, so when it comes to speed and latency, performance is good, and it also has access to data/voice/SMS communication channels. This is of particular importance when it comes to things like emergency equipment such as elevators and remote assistance devices. Even more importantly, LTE-M will eventually become an integral part of 5G, which guarantees its longevity, so you won’t need to change your device as technology evolves.  

When it comes to costs, LTE-M offers excellent value. Modules are less expensive and with extended stand-alone power, you will see a significant reduction in things like technician call outs, while also limiting the number of devices you need to replace.  

Unlike other technologies LTE-M handles hand-over between cell towers, making it ideal for mobile use cases. For example, if a vehicle crosses different network cells, an LTE-M device behaves just like a mobile phone, never dropping the connection – it doesn’t need to re-establish a new connection. 

Key LTE-M applications:

Smart meters

LTE-M easily enables monitoring utility applications via regular and small data transmissions, while its extended range means better coverage in hard to reach areas

Automotive & transport

Full hand-over between networks makes LTE-M ideal for use cases with medium data rate needs, such as connected cars, asset tracking and fleet management

Smart healthcare

With its extended in-building range, mobility, and voice support, LTE-M is particularly suited for connected health applications, including out-patient monitoring and stay-in-place solutions

Smart cities

LTE-M can facilitate a number of outdoor city needs, such as controlled street lighting, waste management, parking and traffic management, and monitoring of environmental conditions. If we move inside, LTE-M can support building automation, such as controlling access, lighting, and security and alarm systems

If you would like to learn more about what LTE-M can do for your business, please get in touch.

What is an eUICC SIM card?

Quick eUICC definition: 

eUICC (Embedded Universal Integrated Circuit Card) is a functional concept for remotely managing SIM profiles, bringing benefits to both IoT devices and your entire deployment. At its very core, eUICC is a software component running on a specific type of SIM hardware that allows you to store multiple operator profiles and switch between them remotely.

Main benefits of eUICC SIMs

Simplicity

You only need one SKU to manage global deployments

Flexibility

Ability to change operators throughout the lifecycle of your device

Resilience

Protect against changes in roaming regulations

Future proofing

Access to both existing and future Tele2 IoT eUICC-based services

Let’s break it down some more: since the start of cellular IoT, when it was still referred to as M2M, IoT devices relying on cellular networks for connectivity have used traditional “UICC” SIM Cards (Universal Integrated Circuit Card). UICC SIMs are “static”, meaning that after manufacturing there is no way to replace the operator on the SIM. In the recent years however, technology advances have brought us the next generation of SIM Cards, namely the eUICC SIM (Embedded Universal Integrated Circuit Card).

With eUICC, it’s no longer ‘put the SIM card in the device, and what it is at deployment is what you get for the rest of the device’s lifetime’ – eUICC SIMs take things up a few notches: you can download profiles, change operator, or even have multiple operators on the same SIM, something that isn’t possible with traditional UICC SIMs. The capabilities of eUICC SIMs are revolutionary for the IoT market – and the most secure eUICC formfactor on the IoT market today is the embedded SIM.

A single SIM for multiple global deployments

Previously, when deploying IoT with traditional UICC SIMs, you needed to understand where your devices would end up in the world so you could install SIM cards with the carrier profile needed to operate in those regions. This could cause complications in your supply chain because managing different SIM with different operators would add significant complexity to your manufacturing and logistic process. With eUICC, once your devices are out in the field, remote provisioning allows you to set them up with the carrier profiles best suited to serve your connectivity needs. So, instead of having multiple different SIM cards in the same device in order to, for example, facilitate optimal roaming in different markets, eUICC means you need just one SIM that enables you to activate the optimal profile for the country you’re in even after deployment.

Additional profiles can be downloaded and managed remotely throughout the device’s life cycle and you can change your operator or service provider without having to physically change out your SIM cards, something that can be both costly and logistically challenging, particularly for enterprises who have large-scale, global IoT deployments, as well as those who have deployed hard-to-reach devices. Additionally, eUICC SIMs are available in all standard form factors, meaning that switching to eUICC-enabled SIM cards is possible without the need to completely change your device.

The difference between eSIM and eUICC

To put it in the simplest of terms, an eSIM is a single virtual SIM card that takes advantage of eUICC’s capabilities.  

While eUICC and eSIM share common goals, their specific functions, features, and applications in IoT differ. eSIM is a virtual SIM card embedded in devices, while eUICC is the technology that enables eSIM’s remote management capabilities. In other words, eUICC is the foundation that makes eSIM technology possible. Additionally, eUICC is designed to store multiple SIM profiles, allowing for seamless switching between different MNOs, whereas eSIM is a single virtual SIM card that takes advantage of eUICC’s capabilities.

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The layers of an eUICC SIM – how are they linked together?

If we look at the different layers of an eUICC SIM, we need to understand how those layers need to match in order for the SIM to work. The hardware Operating System (OS) and electrical profile work like a minicomputer, with the different layers needing to be compatible for the SIM to function correctly. Not just any OS with work with any hardware, though, and it’s the hardware and OS compatability that decides if a SIM can support eUICC functionality.

eUICC functionality allows the SIM to remotely download, switch, and enable a different profile. This means there is no need to physically change the SIM – you can switch between different profiles in the same MNO, or from one MNO profile to a different MNO profile.

The Tele2 (MNO) profile and eUICC profile are personalizations of the SIM. They contain network keys and subscription identifiers (IMSI, ICCID, authentications keys.) The Tele2 profile can either be personalized when the SIM is produced in the factory, or it can be downloaded later through SM-DP (Data Preparation)/SM-SR (Secure Routing).

The Operating System

In addition to matching with the hardware, the OS supports important features on the SIM. If there is a PIN active on the SIM, the PIN handling is in the OS, as are authentication, access, and management of files and data, along with loading and deleting applications. Encryption/decryption and tamper proof functions are also handled in the OS.

One eUICC profile, many MNO profiles

An eUICC SIM has one eUICC profile but can store multiple MNO profiles, although only one MNO profile will be enabled at a time. So, what are these profiles?

What about applets?

Profiles can also contain applets, which are small programs on the SIM dedicated to fulfilling a particular task. The task could be implementing the business logic to change a connectivity profile based on rules, such as when one network is not available and you want the next best available one. If the SIM has a local applet, this is stored in the Tele2/MNO profile. If it’s a global profile it will be in the eUICC profile. To provide interoperability applets are typically developed in JAVA. Today, Tele2 IoT has an applet that clears forbidden networks, and in 2024 local management and management of 5G stand-alone on eUICC will be launched.

Unique eUICC SIM identifiers

Every eUICC SIM has an EID (eUICC identifier) which is the administrational key in the hardware layer. If there is an MNO profile change the SIM will have a different ICCID and IMSI, but once the eUICC SIM is produced its EID is never changed.

The EID contains 32 digits compared to the ICCID’s 20. There is a shortened version of the EID printed on both the embedded and plug in eUICC chip. The EID is provisioned in the SM-SR, which is also responsible for managing the status of profiles on the eUICC.

Hardware & formfactors

When using a SIM that has eUICC capabilities it is important that the hardware is robust and long lasting. ETSI has a classification of the different environmental properties in which the SIM is graded.

On a SIM technical sheet, the environmental performance can be represented in a string, together with which version of ETSI specification was used. The string of letters can then be referred to in order to understand what the SIM can withstand.

For example, the environmental property temperature has the grades TS, TA, TB, and TC. The Premium industrial SIM is graded as TB in its ETSI, string while a commercial SIM is graded TS. The eUICC Premium Industrial SIM can be stored and operational in the temperature range of -40 °C to + 105 °C ,while the UICC commercial SIM can only be used in the temperature range of -25 °C to + 85 °C

As mentioned before there are two types of SIM cards: plug-in formfactors (2FF, 3FF, 4FF) that are removable, and embedded formfactors that are soldered into the device. The most popular embedded SIM on the IoT market is the MFF2 (M2M Form Factor).

As the abbreviation applies the MFF2 SIM is designed for M2M/IoT use cases and is delivered on what looks like an old film reel. It is one of the most secure chips due to being soldered into the device and the device can be designed in a way that makes it more robust in general. An embedded SIM is also a greener, more sustainable alternative to plug-in SIMs, with less plastic and metal per SIM.

The future of eUICC

With eSIM technology the connectivity service profile of the secure identity is separated from the physical chip it is stored on (GSMA M2M eUICC Architecture). As we all know, the physical chip comes in the following current form factors plugin (2FF-4FF) and embedded. When embedded was introduced it got the name eSIM. When the standard for a remotely provisioned Secure Identity was introduced it was also given the eSIM namewith the reasoning that in the future all remotely provisioned Secure Identities will be embedded. But as we are not at that point, this is causing a lot of wasted time spent on miscommunication.  

The fact that the function (that a profile can be remotely provisioned) and the formfactor (embedded) have the same name by GSMA makes it challenging for everyone launching the solution as it is quite complex to describe to customers.  

We at Tele2 IoT try to distinguish between this by using the following terminology: 

• A SIM is aUICC with a Tele2 subscription profile that cannot be changed over time. eUICCs and UICCs come in plug in and embedded form factors

• eUICC is a chip that can have one or many subscription identities (virtual profiles) downloaded and managed remotely

• Our eSIM is an eUICC with our subscription (profile) enabled on delivery, which can be changed, offering freedom and flexibility for our customers.

eCall is a European Union (EU) emergency call system for vehicles that aims to bring rapid assistance to motorists involved in a collision anywhere in the EU. eCall is designed to enhance protection and safety while reducing fatalities caused by road accidents, as well as related injuries, and property loss. The EU implemented the mandated deployment of eCall for new cars and light trucks 31 March 2018.

Why eCall?

All around the world, roads are shared by vehicles of all kinds, yet traffic accidents remain a leading cause of death. Each year, 1.35 million people are killed on roadways globally, with crash injuries estimated to be the 8th leading cause of death globally for all age groups. And the annual cost to society in monetary terms is in the billions.

While governments around the world have launched any number of road safety initiatives to reduce accidents, they’ve mostly focused on enhancing and improving road infrastructure. To provide a critical service that can save lives, the EU has taken a new approach with its pioneering eCall, which is an example of the connected car concept, leveraging IoT technology, real-time data transmission, and enhanced safety features.

How eCall works

In the event of an accident, eCall technology makes an immediate emergency notification via activation of in-vehicle sensors, or manually by vehicle occupants. When activated, eCall provides relevant location information to European Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) by means of mobile wireless communication networks. As all European PSAPs are equipped to receive eCall, it is expected that many existing vehicles will be retrofitted with after-market eCall devices.

  1. Emergency notification: eCall is automatically activated when a vehicle’s sensors detect a severe crash, autonomously dialing 112, the European emergency number.
  2. Location: Connectivity enables positioning, establishing a telephone link with the relevant call canter, with details of the accident, including position, sent.
  3. PSAO operators dispatch appropriate assistance.
  4. Faster help: eCall can increase response time by 40% in urban areas, and 50% in rural areas, reducing the number of fatalities by a minimum of 4%, and the number of severe injuries by 6%.

Connectivity & IoT technology

While eCall devices normally have a separate SIM and rely on voice, there is no support for VoLTE, which may make them vulnerable to the sunsetting of 2G/3G networks. This is due current eCall deployments based on standards from 15-years ago. Work on next generation eCall is currently underway, and an upgrade mandate is expected to be launched as many European telecom operators sunset their GSM networks.

OEMs are recommended to equip their vehicles with a multi-network generation TCU (Telematics Control Unit), while PSAPs should include next generation eCall over LTE in their plans for receiving emergency calls via IPT networks.

Next generation eCall is an evolution of the existing eCall service, based on IMS (IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem) using 4G/5G technology. While there is not yet an EU-level decision on implementation of next generation eCall, the European Commission (EC) is preparing regulatory amendments for the transition of emergency communications, including eCall, to packet-switched IMS-based networks. In accordance with Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2023/444, member states are required to prepare a roadmap for the upgrade. Under current proposals from the EC, PSAPs are required to support next generation eCall from 1 January 2026.

Note that eCall does not allow vehicle tracking outside of emergencies, meaning that end-user data and privacy is protected. The eCall device is dormant and is only activated when vehicle sensors react to a severe crash. Directive 95/46/EC states that vehicles with 112-based eCall systems must be protected against continuous tracking and tracing during normal operations/day-to-day travel. In order to meet regulations, digital security technology is embedded into eCall equipment to prevent misuse and protect privacy.

The European Union expects 100% penetration of eCall to be achieved by 2035, with the number of road deaths and serious injuries reduced by 50% between 2020 and 2030.

If you would like to learn more about how IoT can enable your business, please get in touch. 

Not all that long ago, the idea of autonomous vehicles was the stuff of sci-fi dreams. Fast forward a few years and suddenly many thought they’d be sitting back and scrolling on their phones while their self-driving car got them from point A to point B.  Today, we’ve landed somewhere in the middle. Fully autonomous cars are not quite yet a reality, but there has been exponential growth in self-driving features. And when it comes to other modes of transport, such as public transport, we’ve already boarded the proverbial autonomous bus. 

When we talk about autonomous cars it’s good to keep in mind that there are levels of autonomy 

  • Level 1: Some small steering or acceleration tasks are performed by the vehicle without human intervention 
  • Level 2: Includes things like advanced cruise control and the car automatically taking safety precautions while the driver remains alert.  
  • Level 3: Still requires a human driver, but a number of safety-critical functions are performed by the vehicle under specific traffic and/or environmental conditions. This level is where potential danger starts to be seen 
  • Level 4: The car can drive itself almost all thetime, butcan be programmed to not drive in unmapped areas or under certain weather conditions. Car makers in the self-driving area want to be here 
  • Level 5: Full automation in all conditions

To put these levels in perspective, when the car industry talks about ‘self-driving’, they are referring to levels 3 and 4. Yet despite the herculean efforts being made by leading players in the tech and automotive industries, we won’t be taking a nap in the back seat of our car while it takes us to work any time soon. This despite any number of announcements over the past few years about plans to bring self-driving cars to our streets. The only self-driving cars on the roads right now are in a handful of cities that are conducting readiness tests. There are a number of reasons for this. 

  • Fatal accidents cause by the few partially or fully automated cars being tested
  • Algorithms not yet fully developed
  • Connections unable to maintain speedy and steady data exchange
  • Software vulnerable to attacks

Additionally, it’s not just smart software but also smart roads that are needed to allow cars to run independently, which means cities will need to adapt their road infrastructure. When looking at these factors it’s easy to understand why self-driving cars haven’t advanced as far as predicted – and why the hoped-for ‘start’ date keeps being pushed back.  

But it’s not all bad news: even as engineers continue to develop cutting-edge technologies to advance the case of self-driving cars, the advent of 5G, along with powerful embedded top-down computers will allow stronger and better internet connections and near real-time data flow. And if we look beyond self-driving cars, there are a lot of autonomous vehicles already in play, where lessons can be learned.  

Beyond self-driving cars 

If we look past self-driving cars, we can see a different picture of autonomous vehicles.  Public transport is where we have already boarded the proverbial autonomous bus – and we’ve been on it for quite some time. 

The first driverless metro system was inaugurated in Kobe, Japan in 1991, and since then their popularity has only grown, with 63 fully automated operation lines in 42 cities across 19 countries. The benefits are clear: safety, flexibility, punctuality, cost efficiency, and perhaps most importantly, passenger satisfaction. Denmark’s capital city Copenhagen established its award-winning fully autonomous subway system in 2002 and saw commuters switching from other modes of transport to the metro, including up to 47% of bus passengers and 20% of local train passengers. Even today, nearly two decades later, a regular survey shows that 98% of travelers on the metro are either “happy” or “very happy” with the service.  

If we look at automated metros through a different lens, we can see that the first 500km of automated lines were built over the course of 29 years – but once the technology was proven, it took just eight years for that number to double. According to the International Association of Public Transport (UITP), there will be over 2,300km of fully automated metro lines in operation globally by 2025. UITP says that there is a diversity of profiles of lines and cities around the world, which demonstrates that there are a broad range of services that automated lines can offer to meet the mobility challenges of cities as rapid urbanization continues.

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Even more telling when it comes to autonomous public transport is that no city that has implemented an automated metro line has ever reverted back to a conventional system. The benefits are far too apparent, and all indicators point to the trend towards automated public transport continuing.

Moving away from the streets and into our factories, we can see that there is an ever-increasing number of semi and fully autonomous vehicles within manufacturing operations and even in the field, such as in mining. Free-range Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs), mobile robots, autonomous forklifts and cranes, and even low-payload drones are being implemented. Issues related to retrofitting, safety concerns, and lack of skills/knowledge about the technology are cited as among the barriers to adoption, yet most also recognize the cost advantages to adopting industry mobility, such as cost savings, customer/supply requirements and expectations, increased safety, and employee expectations and preferences. 

Other industries where autonomous vehicles are making themselves invaluable include airports and agriculture. In addition to beginning automation in areas like baggage handling and shuttles, airports are already seeking new airport maintenance solutions, such as autonomous tractors to keep runway edge lights clear of snow., where the technology has already been tested This is happening alongside other solutions using automatic mowing and friction measurement systems. Snow clearing is a vital function at airports, where runways must be completely clear of snow in order to enable flight take offs and landings. Many airports currently have staff on standby to clear snow when and where needed, but automated snowplows free up staff to put their focus on other safety-related tasks not suitable for automation.  

In agriculture, autonomous vehicles already represent $3 billion in investment, a number that is projected to grow to $12 billion by 2026, with controlling costs while increasing output the main drivers. For example, one autonomous tractor equipped with connected sensors can work unmanned 24/7, while another can provide guidance on fertilizer application. Other autonomous vehicles can patrol the fields collecting data on soil conditions and other factors that impact crops, such as weather conditions.  

There are many other examples of how autonomous vehicles are already playing an important role in business and one thing is clear: as technology advances and as 5G enables real-time data, usage will continue to grow exponentially.

If you would like to learn more about how Tele2 IoT can enable your business, please get in touch.  

Asset management is one of the original IoT use cases and has proven to bring real value across myriad industries. IoT asset management refers to the tracking and management of individual connected assets via devices and sensors to capture and report information. IoT devices connect assets to a central platform, allowing you to utilize real-time data streams to monitor, track, and manage the lifecycle your assets.

This has been a game-changer for many companies, who previously relied on error-prone and laborious manual procedures. In fact, according to a study from Webisoft, companies utilizing IoT for asset tracking have enjoyed an impressive increase in efficiency, with a 20% decrease in maintenance costs and a 15% increase in overall equipment effectiveness. In other words, IoT has transformed asset management, revolutionizing traditional practices and driving productivity and success.

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With IoT you can track and maintain anything from equipment on the factory floor, raw materials, or finished goods to mobile assets, such as vehicles, throughout their lifecycle.

Connecting your assets with IoT devices and sensors allows you to gather both real-time and historical data on the status, condition, and performance of each asset, as well as automating your processes, reducing operational costs, increasing productivity, enhancing safety and security, and extending the longevity of your assets.

Resource optimization

IoT technology plays a pivotal role in maximizing asset efficiency and minimizing waste. It does this through continuous monitoring and analysis of data, which provides deep insights into asset usage and performance. This gives you a clear understanding of how, when, and where your assets are being used, thus allowing you to have a more informed and strategic allocation of your resources.

In real terms, this means identifying where resources are over or-underutilized, leading to adjustments that can lead to a reduction in operational costs. This kind of fine-tuning of resource distribution ensures that each asset is used to its optimal capacity, avoiding unnecessary costs related to things like energy and maintenance.

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Beyond cost reduction, utilizing IoT can enhance overall productivity by allocating assets in a way that maximizes output and efficiency.

In other words, making the right assets available and functioning at the right time means you can maintain high performance standards.

Real-time data

Real-time data transforms asset management. IoT sensors allow you to receive constant updates on the condition, location, and usage patterns of your assets. This information drives data-driven and informed decisions about everything from maintenance schedules and asset deployment to resource allocation. It also allows predictive maintenance, preventing issues before they escalate and therefore saving you money, time, and manpower.

If we look at Industrial IoT, integrating IoT technology allows manufacturers to analyze and monitor three crucial aspects of their equipment: availability, quality, and performance. This real-time information minimizes losses and downtime.

Predictive maintenance

This is a key application of IoT in asset management. Analyzing data from IoT sensors allows you to use predictive algorithms to estimate when an asset is likely to require maintenance or replacement. When compared to traditional reactive maintenance, your business will become far more efficient and cost-effective, and costly downtimes will be greatly reduced.

This is a significant shift is how a business approaches asset care, with IoT devices generating critical data on everything from temperature and vibration to overall wear and tear, which ultimately gives you a comprehensive view of each asset’s status. In real terms, this means you can detect patterns and irregularities that could indicate potential equipment breakdown or failure. Anticipation potential issues before they escalate into failures allows you to plan and target maintenance intervention, rather than working from a reactive maintenance schedule.

Scalability

IoT technology allows you to adapt seamlessly handle a growing number of assets and the accompanying surge in data without losing performance of efficiency. IoT technology allows you to swiftly adjust your asset management strategy and make considered decisions by utilizing both real-time and historical data. This could involve maintenance scheduling, resource allocation, or performance optimization. The ability to react quickly to market or other business changes means you have the competitive edge over those still mired down in old practices.

Security

IoT technology allows you to track your assets in real time, making it easier to locate and recover stolen or lost assets. Furthermore, IoT devices can provide alerts in the event of unauthorized access or tampering, allow you to take swift action.

Conclusion

Marrying IoT with asset tracking means many industries are being transformed, with new standards for operational efficiency being set. There are myriad benefits to be enjoyed by implementing IoT in asset management, ranging from automation and cost control to enhanced monitoring and improved accuracy.

As IoT technologies evolve, so too will the impact they have on your business, with new opportunities being unlocked. Business is an ever-evolving landscape – and IoT is not just a technology advancement, it’s an inescapable strategic imperative for any business who wants to keep one step ahead of the competition.

If you would like to learn more about how IoT enables asset management, please get in touch. 

To the naked eye, there isn’t much difference between consumer and IoT/M2M SIMs. The SIM in your mobile phone looks pretty much like the SIM in an IoT device, but there are critical differences. Your phone SIM is a commercial UICC plug-in, while an IoT device that is enabled to remotely manage subscriptions and has space for a removeable SIM is using an eUICC plug-in SIM. So, while they may look the same, the capabilities of eUICC SIMs are revolutionary for the IoT market- and the most secure eUICC formfactor on the IoT market today is the embedded SIM.

Let’s look at the different layers of an eUICC SIM and how those layers need to match in order for the SIM to work.

How are the layers linked together?

The hardware Operating System (OS) and electrical profile work like a minicomputer, with the different layers needing to be compatible for the SIM to function correctly. Not just any OS with work with any hardware, though, and it’s the hardware and OS compatability that decides if a SIM can support eUICC functionality.

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eUICC functionality allows the SIM to remotely download, switch, and enable a different profile.

This means there is no need to physically change the SIM – you can switch between different profiles in the same MNO, or from one MNO profile to a different MNO profile.

The Operating System

In addition to matching with the hardware, the OS supports important features on the SIM. If there is a PIN active on the SIM, the PIN handling is in the OS, as are authentication, access, and management of files and data, along with loading and deleting applications. Encryption/decryption and tamper proof functions are also handled in the OS.

One eUICC profile, many MNO profiles

An eUICC SIM has one eUICC profile but can store multiple MNO profiles, although only one MNO profile will be enabled at a time. So, what are these profiles?

The Tele2 (MNO) profile and eUICC profile are personalizations of the SIM. They contain network keys and subscription identifiers (IMSI, ICCID, authentications keys.) The Tele2 profile can either be personalized when the SIM is produced in the factory, or it can be downloaded later through SM-DP (Data Preparation)/SM-SR (Secure Routing).

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Profiles can also contain applets, which are small programs on the SIM dedicated to fulfilling a particular task.

The task could be implementing the business logic to change a connectivity profile based on rules, such as when one network is not available and you want the next best available one.

If the SIM has a local applet, this is stored in the Tele2/MNO profile. If it’s a global profile it will be in the eUICC profile. To provide interoperability applets are typically developed in JAVA.

Today Tele2 IoT has an applet that clears forbidden networks, and in 2024 local management and management of 5G stand-alone on eUICC will be launched.

What is unique in an eUICC SIM?

Every eUICC SIM has an EID (eUICC identifier) which is the administrational key in the hardware layer. If there is an MNO profile change the SIM will have a different ICCID and IMSI, but once the eUICC SIM is produced its EID is never changed.

The EID contains 32 digits compared to the ICCID’s 20. There is a shortened version of the EID printed on both the embedded and plug in eUICC chip. The EID is provisioned in the SM-SR, which is also responsible for managing the status of profiles on the eUICC.

Hardware and formfactors

When using a SIM that has eUICC capabilities it is important that the hardware is robust and long lasting. ETSI has a classification of the different environmental properties in which the SIM is graded.

On a SIM technical sheet, the environmental performance can be represented in a string, together with which version of ETSI specification was used. The string of letters can then be looked up to understand what the SIM can withstand.

For example, the environmental property temperature has the grades TS, TA, TB, and TC. The Premium industrial SIM is graded as TB in its ETSI, string while a commercial SIM is graded TS. The eUICC Premium Industrial SIM can be stored and operational in the temperature range of -40 °C to + 105 °C ,while the UICC commercial SIM can only be used in the temperature range of -25 °C to + 85 °C

As mentioned before there are two types of SIM cards: plug-in formfactors (2FF, 3FF, 4FF) that are removable, and embedded formfactors that are soldered into the device. The most popular embedded SIM on the IoT market is the MFF2 (M2M Form Factor).

As the abbreviation applies the MFF2 SIM is designed for M2M/IoT use cases and is delivered on what looks like an old film reel. It is one of the most secure chips due to being soldered into the device and the device can be designed in a way that makes it more robust in general. An embedded SIM is also a greener alternative to plug-in SIMs, with less plastic and metal per SIM.

If you would like to know more about our SIMs and eUICC functionality, please feel free to reach out to the Tele2 IoT team.

Cities across the globe have already implemented any number of smart city solutions, leveraging IoT technology to connect everything from public transport to healthcare to waste management. But unlocking the full potential of a smart city remains a challenge. To be truly successful and to fully reap the benefits of IoT, smart cities cannot simply adopt digital technologies in silos – they need to leverage and combine the strengths and diverse capabilities of their different departments across the entire smart city ecosystem.

To avoid the myriad challenges silos bring, it’s important that cities create transparency between various city services. Too many teams still operate in solos as they manage various needs such as traffic, utilities, power, water, and parking. Each of these departments generate massive amounts of data – and IoT technology can enable each area to increase productivity, improve processes, and leverage that data to allow for better decision making and cross-departmental collaboration.

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Chaotic, siloed planning and development, outdated policies, strategies, and infrastructure – all of these contribute to wasted time, money, resources and energy.

The good news is that many cities are working to remove barriers to a truly connected smart city. The result is a collaborative approach that leverages IoT to mitigate risk and optimize assets, resulting in improved systems and enhanced quality of life.

Here’s what breaking down the silos could mean in practice: imagine a driver on his or her daily commute. They are stuck in traffic and wondering why. Suddenly, they are alerted by the city of an accident 20 km down the road. They are also given information on alternative routes, which allows them to quickly adjust their plans and make it to work on time.

Now let’s add some more to that picture. By leveraging IoT and related technology, the driver isn’t the only person alerted to that accident. First responders and people working with public safety and public works are also notified, oassengers using public transport are alerted and nearby police officers are quickly re-routed and re-assigned.

Suddenly, through IoT, you have all interested parties mobilized and aware and a potentially difficult situation is brought under control much more quickly. Additionally, data from the incident can be utilized to understand if the place of the accident is one where accidents happen regularly. Data can also be used to measure response times and how systems are working.

Another scenario could involve a big event in your city, such as a sporting event or a concert. By connecting your various systems and departments and sharing information, traffic lights and public transport can be coordinated with event timings to help manage and disperse crowds in a safe and efficient manner. Connected parking spaces can help people easily identify where to park through an app, while an integrated cashless payment system can ease processes.

So, how do you develop a truly cohesive smart city that is responsive and integrated? While the best advice is to integrate your solutions right from the start, that might not be possible, given that many cities already have smart city solutions up and running.  No matter what stage your smart city is at, collaboration between the various players across the smart city is pivotal in developing the right suite of smart solutions to meet the unique needs of your city.

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Interoperability is a key factor in successfully removing Smart City silos.

Linking legacy systems, including IT systems, with IoT sensors and data architectures is crucial. It’s also important to not see implementing IoT purely in terms of just technology. Implementing IoT is also an operational transformation that will impact a wide range of stakeholders, even if they are not directly involved. And don’t forget about data: know how you’re going extract, analyze, and store data. You may not be using all of the data right away for things like AI, but you may want to in the future, so have a plan.

Ask yourself the following questions:

  • What does ‘smart’ look like/mean for your regions?
  • Which smart solutions will solve which challenges – and how can they work in harmony?
  • Which technologies, policies, and strategies will be needed?
  • How will you finance your projects?
  • How will you address security?
  • How will intelligent systems work together across departments and even with other regions?
  • How will you measure outcomes for different stakeholders?

At the end of the day, employees will come and go, so developing an interconnected, interoperable smart system that is built to last will benefit both the city and any future employees in the long run. Historical data will be crucial to future city planning, as well as key to continued optimization and improved efficiency across the smart city ecosystem.

If you would like to learn more about how Tele2 IoT can help you integrate your Smart City solution, please get in touch.

In today’s business world, IoT (Internet of Things) has moved from ‘nice to have’ to ‘must have’ due to the tremendous amount of data being captured from multiple sources, leading to a host of benefits, including improved processes, cost savings, streamlined operations, and increased customer satisfaction.

According to the International Data Corporation, the total data generated by 2025 is expected to be around 175 ZB, with roughly 80 ZB attributable just to IoT devices. This presents two challenges: 1) Not all data is created equal, meaning a fair amount of data collected isn’t useful, and 2) processing that data efficiently isn’t easy.

This is where AI (Artificial Intelligence) comes into the picture. AI, machine learning, generative AI – they all fall under the same umbrella of artificial intelligence. And by combining AI’s data analysis capabilities with IoT’s extensive data collection, organizations can make data-driven decisions, optimize operations, and improve efficiency across their business much more quickly and efficiently.

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IoT deals with devices interacting using the internet. AI allows those devices to learn from their data and ‘experience’.

To put it simply: IoT collects and transmits the data, while AI has the power to unlock that data much faster than a human can. The combination of these two disruptive technologies creates and enables extremely powerful end results that have the potential to revolutionize industries, businesses, and economies:

Operational efficiency

AI takes the constant stream that IoT devices extracts and detects patterns and anomalies that devices are not capable of doing. Machine learning coupled with AI can predict operation conditions and detect parameters to be modified to ensure ideal outcomes. AI-enabled IoT offers insights into which processes are redundant and time-consuming, and which tasks can be fine-tuned to enhance efficiency. AI processes large volumes of data received by connected devices and identifies similarities in patterns faster and more accurately than humans. This means you can maximize time, resources, and effort.

Data preparation

While IoT devices collect and transfer data with no eye towards what is relevant and what is not, AI can sift through and select useful data, presenting relevant and insightful information, while leaving aside what isn’t useful. AI can also assist in optimizing data labeling – adding tags, labels, or names to raw data, which allows a machine learning program to better understand and utilize information.

Faster analytics

Bringing AI and IoT together means data has less distance to travel before it’s usable. This is because many large data centers are often situated in a different region than your business, which means your information has to cover a lot of ground between origin, processing, and application, which in turn gives you latency issues.

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When IoT becomes enabled by AI, smart devices are suddenly able to analyze data on their own, which means faster speed and lower latencies – and improved performance.

Better risk management

AI-enabled IoT helps businesses to both understand and predict a broad range of risks and automate a prompt response. The classic example of this involves employee safety. Equipping workers wearable smart devices connected to a database allows those devices to collect data on things like location, temperature, worker vital signs, etc. That data is then transmitted to a central point for processing and analysis. If a worker’s vital signs are reaching a dangerous level, AI-enabled virtual assistants can send an alert to the worker or management and avoid a potentially dangerous outcome.

Improved customer satisfaction

Prioritizing customers’ needs and keeping customers happy is at the heart of every business. Unfortunately, any number of factors can contribute to customer dissatisfaction. Today, though, more and more businesses are recognizing the value of AI by implementing chatbots to not just interact with customers and address their needs, but to also utilize enormous amounts of data offer a far more personalized experience based. There are two kinds of chatbots: the first is based on AI and thus is more complicated, with the ability to evolve, while the second is based on a fixed set of rules that mean limitations and the inability to grow on their own.

Conclusion

The scalability and adaptability of AI and IoT complement one another. Combining the two technologies offers immense potential for driving innovation and transformation in a variety of industries. The number of connected devices will continue to grow and with it the amount of data.

IoT provides the infrastructure and connectivity to collect and transmit data, while AI algorithms are ideal for handling the increased complexity and volume of data, extracting meaningful insights and making sense of it at scale. By leveraging the unique capabilities of AI and IoT and letting them work in harmony, organizations can unlock new levels of automation, efficiency, and decision-making. And as both AI and IoT evolve, both individually and in conjunction with one another, the impact will help shape future intelligent systems.

If you would like to learn more about the possibilities IoT and related technologies can bring to your business, please get in touch. 

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